Mitigate Antibiotic Damage with Answers Raw Cow Milk Kefir

Dr_Doug_3724_Silo_BLOG_200x200Guest Contributor— Answers Chief Veterinarian, Dr. Doug Knueven, veteran among veterinarians, examines raw nutrition as a healing power of pets and works to ensure an all-encompassing true health (physical, mental and spiritual) regimen in veterinary medicine for animals. Apart of his work with Answers Executive Veterinary Program, he’s a consultant for Answers product and program development, lecturer, and participant on panel discussions.

The term “antibiotic” literally means “against life.”

If fact, while antibiotics are sometimes lifesaving in the case of a serious bacterial infection, they do kill the good bacteria along with the bad. Many veterinarians try to stop the damage caused by antibiotics be prescribing probiotic supplements. Unfortunately, this strategy may do little good. The reason for this can be found with a deep dive into the gastrointestinal microbiome. So, hold your nose, we’re jumping in!

The gastrointestinal microbiome is the collection of all the organisms in the gut. It is well known that a balanced microbiome is needed for many processes in the body, including the immune system, brain function, detoxification, general metabolism, and digestion/gastrointestinal function. It is also understood that antibiotics (as well as other medications) throw off the balance of GI bacteria, a condition known as dysbiosis.

Dysbiosis has been linked to immune system dysfunctions such as allergies and autoimmune diseases. It has also been shown to have a negative effect on pet behavior causing fear and anxiety. An unbalance gut microbiome can cause inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as liver disease. It has even been associated with obesity.

Please be aware that just because a pet does not get diarrhea when taking antibiotics, it does not mean they do not have dysbiosis. If your pet takes antibiotics, you can be sure their gut bacterial balance has been thrown out of whack. In fact, one study1 in dogs found that Metronidazole, a drug commonly used to treat diarrhea, caused major disruptions in the microbiome that lasted 4 weeks. A human study2 found that just a short course of antibiotics caused an alteration in the GI microbiome that lasted up to 4 years.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast

Saccharomyces, found in Answers Fermented Raw Cow Milk Kefir, are live probiotics that help restore normal flora of stomach and intestine.

It is for good reason that veterinarians try to head off the microbiome damage caused by antibiotics by prescribing probiotics.

The problem with this strategy is that the antibiotics kill off these bacteria too. If we look more closely at the definition of the GI microbiome, we can see a better solution.

You’ll remember that the microbiome consists of all the organisms in the gut. These include bacteria for sure, but yeast and viruses too. While the good bacteria in the intestines have gotten all the press, there are good yeast organisms as well, which are equally deserving of the name “probiotic.” One such organism is called Saccharomyces. (Just like there are good and bad bacteria, there are good and bad yeast) The significance of probiotic yeast like Saccharomyces is that antibiotics only kill bacteria. So, while antibiotics destroy GI bacterial balance, they can’t touch probiotic yeast organisms. The good yeast can stabilize the microbiome through the onslaught of antibiotics.

In people, Saccharomyces supplements have been used successfully to treat antibiotic-associated diarrhea, IBD, IBS, unclassified acute diarrhea, traveler’s diarrhea, and C. difficile infection.3 In a study4 of 20 dogs with chronic IBD, Saccharomyces improved clinical signs and body condition score. In another study5, 24 healthy dogs received an injection of the antibiotic lincomycin at 7 times recommended dose. In the group that got Saccharomyces at the time of the injection, none developed diarrhea. Meanwhile 75% of those that were not given the probiotic yeast got diarrhea that lasted an average of 6 ½ days.

Why all this talk about probiotic yeast?

Organic Eggs. Organic Food in thailand.White Background.

Answers Additional Fermented Raw Cow Milk Kefir

Well, it turns out that Answers Raw Cow Milk Kefir is not only loaded with a host of amazing, health-promoting nutrients and probiotic bacteria, it also contains Saccharomyces yeast! Giving this product with antibiotics can help a pet maintain their GI microbiome balance and avoid the issues caused by dysbiosis. Every pet who is receiving antibiotics, or any other medication for that matter, needs to be taking Answers Raw Cow Milk Kefir.

 

 

 

 

  1. Suchodolski, J. et al. Effects of a hydrolysed protein diet and metronidazole on the fecal microbiome and metabolome in healthy dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2016;30:1455.
  2. Jakobsson HE, Jernberg C, Andersson AF, Sjo ̈lund-Karlsson M, Jansson JK, Engstrand L. Short-term antibiotic treatment has differing long-term impacts on the human throat and gut microbiome. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(3):e9836.
  3. Farland LV. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:2202–22.
  4. D’Angelo S, Fracassi F, Bresciani F, et al. Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in dogs with chronic enteropathies: double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Vet Record. 2018;182(9):258.
  5. Aktas MS, Borku MK, Ozkanlar Y. Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii as a probiotic in dogs with lincomycin induced diarrhea. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy. 2007;51:365–369.

 

 

 


Let’s Chew the Fat about FAT

Dr_Doug_3724_Silo_BLOG_200x200Guest Contributor— Answers Chief Veterinarian, Dr. Doug Knueven, veteran among veterinarians, examines raw nutrition as a healing power of pets and works to ensure an all-encompassing true health (physical, mental and spiritual) regimen in veterinary medicine for animals. Apart of his work with Answers Executive Veterinary Program, he’s a consultant for Answers product and program development, lecturer, and participant on panel discussions.

Demonizing fat.

Answers Raw Pet Foods are higher in fat than most other pet foods – there, I said it. They consist basically of 50% fat and 50% protein. A relatively high-fat diet sounds baaaad. Fat has been demonized as a food constituent since the 1950’s when it was theorized that dietary fat leads obesity (and associated problems) in people. The concept is simple, you eat fat and it goes directly to your beer belly. (Why is it called a beer belly? – there is no fat in beer). Since the start of the war on fat, obesity rates in the US have skyrocketed from 23% in 1962 to 39.6% in 2016. This low-fat thing does not seem to be working.

Fat is the better choice.

It turns out that, SURPRISE!, nutrition is complicated. There are 3 macronutrients in food that provide calories – fat, carbohydrate, and protein. Of these, it is actually excessive dietary carbohydrate that is linked to obesity (and inflammation for that matter). Eating fat leads to better satiety (the feeling of being satisfyingly full) in dogs. A satiated dog is one that does not over-eat. A canine eating empty calories (excessive carbs) is more likely to eat more food and put on weight. As for protein, while it can be used by the body for energy (calories) its ideal purpose in a diet is to build tissue. So, as far as sources of calories go, we have carbs or fat. Fat is the better choice, and dogs instinctively know this. Let’s look at the research.

An ideal macronutrient balance – a closer look.

The relative amounts of fat, carbohydrate, and protein in a diet is called its macronutrient balance. Dietary macronutrient balance in animals has been shown to affect growth rate and size,1,2 obesity,3 longevity,4 and disease resistance.5 It is also known that predators select food based on the macronutrient balance that best assures their survival.6,7

So how can we know the ideal macronutrient balance for dogs? One way is to look at the nutrient selection of our dogs’ closest relative, the wolf. This study8 summarized 50 studies of the diets of wild wolves with the expressed intention of discovering optimal dog nutrition. Wolves eat a diet consisting of a macronutrient balance of 54:45:1, Protein:Fat:Carbohydrate.*

WOLF_CHART_1024x500These researchers go on to say, “The nutritive characteristics of commercial foods differ in several aspects from the dog’s closest free-living ancestor in terms of dietary nutrient profile and this may pose physiological and metabolic challenges.”

Now, another way to find the ideal macronutrient balance for dogs is let them pick it themselves. This study9 did just that. They used 5 diverse breeds: papillon, miniature schnauzer, cocker spaniel, Labrador retriever, and St Bernard. Dogs selected a macronutrient balance of 30:63:7, Protein:Fat:Carbohydrate.*

DOG_CHART_1024x500These researchers go on to say, “… the overriding conclusion is that the recent rapid divergence among dog breeds is not substantially reflected in their macronutrient priorities compared with other phenotypic features such as size, color, and temperament.”

Realizing that no study is perfect, let’s average the above 2 studies to get a macronutrient balance of 42:54:4, Protein:Fat:Carbohydrate.* At least that is an approximation of the ideal balance for dogs.

Just for fun, compare this to the AFFCO standards for dog food which is 19:12:69, Protein:Fat:Carbohydrate.*

AAFCO_CHART_1024x500Wow! Lots of yellow. That’s because carbs are a cheap source of calories.

The bottom line is that the Answers dietary formula is remarkably close to the ideal macronutrient balance for dogs as determined by their own, innate biology. My advice is to ignore conventional “wisdom” and embrace the healthy fat in Answers Raw Pet Foods.

* The level of macronutrients in these studies are expressed as the percentage of calories they provide in the food. This is different that the percentage as fed that is on the pet food label.

 

 

References

  1. Raubenheimer D, Simpson SJ. Integrative models of nutrient balancing: application to insects and vertebrates. Nutr Res Rev. 1997;10:151–179.
  2. Simpson SJ, Sibly RM, Lee KP, Behmer ST, Raubenheimer D. Optimal foraging when regulating intake of multiple nutrients. Anim Behav. 2004; 68:1299–1311.
  3. Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D. Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis. Obes Rev 2005; 6:133–142.
  4. Piper MDW, Partridge L, Raubenheimer D, Simpson SJ. Dietary restriction and aging: a unifying perspective. Cell Metab. 2011;14:154–160.
  5. Cotter SC, Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D, Wilson K. Macronutrient balance mediates trade-offs between immune function and life history traits. Funct Ecol. 2010; 25:186–198.
  6. Mayntz D, Nielsen VH, Sørensen A, Toft S, Raubenheimer D, Hejlesen C, Simpson SJ. Balancing of protein and lipid by a mammalian carnivore, the mink (Mustela vison). Anim Behav 2009; 77:349–355.